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Julius Kondratyev
Julius Kondratyev

Japanese Tits


The species made headlines in March 2016, when Toshitaka Suzuki et al.[2] reported in Nature Communications that they had found experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls, marking the first such evidence for that type of syntax in nonhuman animals.[2] They demonstrated that the Japanese tit will respond to the recruitment call of the willow tit but only as long as it follows the Japanese tit alert call in the correct alert+recruitment order, evidence that Japanese tits recognize the parts of the combination.[3]




japanese tits


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One of the cognitive capacities underlying language is core-Merge, which allows senders to combine two words into a sequence and receivers to recognize it as a single unit. Recent field studies suggest intriguing parallels in non-human animals, e.g., Japanese tits (Parus minor) combine two meaning-bearing calls into a sequence when prompting antipredator displays in other individuals. However, whether such examples represent core-Merge remains unclear; receivers may perceive a two-call sequence as two individual calls that are arbitrarily produced in close time proximity, not as a single unit. If an animal species has evolved core-Merge, its receivers should treat a two-call sequence produced by a single individual differently from the same two calls produced by two individuals with the same timing. Here, we show that Japanese tit receivers exhibit antipredator displays when perceiving two-call sequences broadcast from a single source, but not from two sources, providing evidence for core-Merge in animals.


If an animal uses core-Merge to perceive call sequences, then it should be able to assess whether the component calls are produced from the same spatial location, as well as whether they are temporally linked into naturally ordered sequences. Japanese tits are exposed to a shrike specimen in combination with four types of playback stimuli: a alert calls and recruitment calls are broadcast from one speaker as temporally linked, alert-recruitment sequences, b the same two calls are broadcast from two speakers, while they are temporally linked, c recruitment calls and alert calls are broadcast from one speaker, but they are not naturally ordered, d the two calls are not linked in either space or time. In two-speaker treatments, the speakers and a shrike specimen were placed in a straight line.


Here, we show that Japanese tits mob a shrike specimen when hearing alert-recruitment call sequences played from a single speaker, but not when hearing the same two calls played from different speakers with the same timing. This demonstrates that tits recognize an alert-recruitment call sequence produced by a single individual as a single unit, and not merely as two temporally linked calls, providing evidence for core-Merge in a non-human species.


In a dimly lit forest, a sneaky marten silently stalks a group of Japanese Tits fluttering in the treetops. Then, suddenly, one of the little birds spots the invader and belts out a series of buzzy chirps. In response, the tits assemble and prepare for a preemptive attack on the predator.


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